History of collecting of qur'an

Posted by Imam Sahal On Sabtu, 26 Maret 2011 0 komentar

After we discuss about asbabun nuzul, revelation makkah and madaniyah of the quran . Now we will discuss about the history of preservation of the quran. This theme is very important to discussed by us. Because, after we know about the history of the quran in the prophet Muhammad era, we can find the truth of authentic of al-quran right now, how it was written, and through how many stages these attempts passed. We will discuss and answer the doubts being created by non-muslim and atheists.
The preservation in the prophet era, there was two metode:

Long time ago, arabs society knowed with the stupid era, because they couldn’t read and write, but the capability to memorize is very strength, they liked made some poem. Therefore, it was possible to preserve it with memorize it. But , the reason not only that, but also, because the Quran was not revealed all it one time but its various verses were revealed in piecemeal according to the needs and circumstances of the time it was not possible to preserve it as a written book during the lifetime of the prophet Muhammad. According to Sahih Muslim, Allah assured the prophet:

ومنزل عليك كتابا لا يغسله الماء
I am going to reveal to you a book which water cannot wash.

The meaning is just one book will be so saved and preserved in the hearts (memory) of men there will be no danger of its getting perished. And the other book in the world will perish due to worldly calamities, as happened in the case of Torah, Injeel and other divine scriptures.
In the beginning, when revelations came to the prophet Muhammad, he used to repeat its words at the same time so as to memorize them all, but because he repeat the words hurriedly right at the moment of revelation itself. On this, the following verse was revealed:
       •    
(o Prophet) Move not your tongue therewith to make haste with it (the learning of the Quran). Surely upon Us rest the collecting thereof. (Al-Qiyamah 75:16-17).
This verse assured the prophet Muhammad that he doesn’t need to repeat the words hurriedly right, because Allah Himself would confer upon him a memory that he would not forget a revelation after heard it once. Thus, it authenticate and the safets repository of the Quran wherein there was not the slightest chance of any mistake or alteration. Moreover, as an additional precaution he used to repeat the Quran before Gabriel in the month of Ramadan every year, and on the year of his death he did it twice.
Further, he read the word revelation to the companions piecemeal, not only read but he teach the companions the meanings of the Quran and had them memories its words as well. Because the prophet ummi, so the prophet revealed by Allah to ummi society. On this, the following verse was revealed:
                     
The companions was very bended on Quran. They competed in memorize, learnt, and understood it. Every home heard by Quran, in every family they always teach about Quran. The prophet Muhammad entrusted some companions to teach a far companions, for example:
a. Ibnu ‘Umair dan Ibnu Um Maktum went to Madinah, they always teach about islam and read Quran to madina’s society.
b. Mu’adz bin Jabal to Makkah went to Makkah teach about islam and read the word revelation of Quran to Makkah’s society
c. Ubadah ibn al Shamit, said , some one if went or migration to another place, The Prophet Muhammad would sent some one to teach Quran to them.
Because that, in every mosque heard and noise by the south’s society. So the prophet Muhammad ask to slow their voice.

And the implication before that, many companions have memorize Al-Quran and get title “hafidh quran”, they are: the four kholifah, Tolhah, Sa’d, Ibnu Mas’ud, Hudzaifah, Abu Hurairah, Ibnu Umar, Ibnu Abbas, Amr ibn Ash, son’s Abdullah, Mu’awiyah, Ibnu Zubair, Abdullah ibnu al-Sa’ib, Aisyah, Hafsah, Ummu Salamah. And from Anshar group is Ubay bin Ka’ab, Mu’adz bin Jabal, Zaid bin Tsabit, Abu Darda, Marwah ibn Haritsah, Anas bin Malik, Abu Zaid. And the other haven’t get the tittle “hafidh quran” and read the revelation of Quran to prophet Muhammad.
B. Writing Of The Qur’an In The Prophetic Periode
Although the presevation of the Qur’an had rested mainly upon the memory of the Companions, the holy Prophet SAW had made special arrangements to have it written as well. The methode used for this purpose has been described by Zayd bin Tsabit :
“I used to write down the revelation (wahy) for the Prophet SAW. When the revelation came to him he felt intense heat and drops of pespiration used to roll down on his body like pearls. When tihs state was over i used to fetch a shoulder bone or a piece of something else. He used to go on dictating and i used to write it down.
When i finished writing the sheer weight of transcription gave me the feeling that my leg would break and i would not be able to walk any more. Anyhow, when i had finished writing. He would say, “read”, and i would read it back to him. If there was an omission or error he used to correct it and then let be brought before the people.”
The transcription of revelation was nos assigned to Zayd bin tsabit alone but other Companions were appointed for this purpose who used to do the task as and when required. The number of these writers has been counted up to forty , but more welknown among them are the following:
Sayyidina Abubakar, Umar, Utshman, Ali, Ubay bin KAAb, Abdullah bin Abi Sarh, Zubaer bin Awwam, Khalid bin Said, Aban bin Said, Aban Ibn Sai’d, Hanzalah ibn Rabi’, Muqib bin Abi Fatimah, Abdullah bin Arqam, Shurahbell bin Hasnah, Abdullah bin Rawahah, Amir bin Fuhayroh, Amr bin ash, Tsabit bin qaish, Mughiro bin Shaabah, khalid bin walid, muawiyah bin abi sufyan, zayd bin tsabit.
Usman has stated that it was the practice of the Prophet apart from dictating a wahyu he also instructed the scribe to write it after such and such verses in such and such Surah. Hence it was being writen accordingly.
As paper was a scarce commodity in Arabia, the Qur’anic revelation were written mostly on tables of stone, parchments of leather, branches of date-trees, pieces of bamboos, leaves of trees and animal bones. But at times pieces of paper were also used.
Thus, in the days of the prophet one copy of the qur’an consisted of that which he had got written under his personal supervision, though it was not in a book form but in shape of different parchments. Alongwith this, some companions also used to write down the qur’anic verses for their personal record. This was being practised form the very beginning islam. As is evidenced by the fact thas Fatimah bin khattab, the sister of umar and her husband said bin zayd had accepted islam before umar bin khattab, and on hearing that when he entered their house in rage he found a parchments on which the verses of surah Taha were written and sayyidina khabbab bin Arat was teaching them.
In addition to this, there are several traditions which indicate that the comapanions had with them individually written copies of complete qur’an. For example, Bukhari has quoted ibn Umar as saying:
“the Prophet has disallowed the carrying along of the qur’an in enemy land”.
Also, there occurs a tradition in Mu’jam Thabrani taht the Prophet said:
“If anyone recites the qur’an without seeing the transcription the reward in is one thousand times, and if he reads it from transcription the reward is two thousand times”.
The above two traditions clearly indicate that the companions did posses written copies of the qur’an during the life time of the Prophet. If it were not so, the question of reading from the transcription or carrying it to enemy land does not arise.
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